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When a general, unable to estimate the enemy's strength, allows an inferior force to engage a larger one, or hurls a weak detachment against a powerful one, and neglects to place picked soldiers in the front rank, the result must be rout.

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  • Pre-University

    • Different Levels of Study
    • Knowledge Skills
    • ‘A’ Level Subjects at H1, H2 AND H3 Levels for 2006 Curriculum
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    • Primary

      Primary Education consists of a 4-year foundation stage from Primary 1 to 4 and a 2-year orientation stage from Primary 5 to 6. The overall aim of primary education is to give students a good grasp of English language, Mother Tongue and Mathematics ...

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    • Secondary

      places students in the Special, Express, Normal (Academic) or Normal (Technical) course according to how they perform at the PSLE. The different curricular emphases are designed to match their learning abilities and interests. ...

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    • Pre-University

      The National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) conduct separate admission exercises under the following broad university admission framework for ‘A’ Level and Polytechnic graduates: ...

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    • Pre-School

      These are some questions you might like to ask yourself when selecting a kindergarten for your child. It would also be advisable to visit the kindergarten and meet the principal to find out more about the environment of the kindergarten, its programme and teachers.

       

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    • Secondary

      THE INNER CIRCLE
      centring on life skills ensures that students acquire sound values and skills to take them through life as responsible adults and active citizens. It comprises the ...

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    • Pre-University

      prepares students for the GCE "A" Level examination at the end of the 2-year junior college or 3-year centralised institute course. Students who completed their pre-university education will receive a School Graduation Certificate. ...

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    • Secondary

      Students in the Normal course follow either the Normal (Academic) or Normal (Technical) curriculum. In the Normal (Academic) course, students offer 6-8 subjects in the GCE ‘N’ Level examination. They have, as compulsory subjects, English Language,...

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    • Secondary

      DEVELOPMENTS IN THE N(A) COURSE

      DEVELOPMENTS IN THE N(T) COURSE

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    • Secondary

      • Integrated Programmes (IPs)
      • Bicultural Studies Programme (Chinese) [BSP/C] & Special Assistance Plan (SAP)
      • Elective Programme in Malay Language for Secondary Schools (EMAS)
      • Malay (Special Programme)/Chinese (Special Programme) [M(SP)/C(SP)]
      • Foreign La...

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History and controversy

Because of the complexity of the English alphabetic structure, more than a century of debate has occurred over whether English phonics ought to be taught at all. Beginning in the mid 19th century, some American educators, prominently Horace Mann, argued this point precisely. This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the "Dick and Jane" readers popular in the mid-20th century. Beginning in the 1950s, however, phonics resurfaced as a method of teaching reading. Spurred by Rudolf Flesch's polarizing, bombastic criticism of the absence of phonics instruction (particularly in his popular book, Why Johnny Can't Read) phonics resurfaced, but—owing to Flesch's polemical approach—the term "phonics" became associated with political ideology. The popularity of phonics rose, but many educators associated it with "back to basics" pedagogy and eschewed it.

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Basic rules

Alphabetic principle

English spelling is based upon the alphabetic principle, the idea that letters represent sounds. For example, the word pat is composed of three letters, p, a, and t, each representing a phoneme, respectively, /p/, /æ/, and /t/.[1] Some letters in English regularly represent one sound, such as b, m, and d. However, the alphabetic principle is not sufficient to represent all of the spellings in English.

 

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Different phonics approaches

Synthetic phonics is a method employed to teach phonics to children when learning to read. This method involves examining every spelling within the word individually as an individual sound and then blending those sounds together. For example, shrouds would be read by pronouncing the sounds for each spelling "/ʃ, ɹ, aʊ, d, z/" and then blending those sounds orally to produce a spoken word, "/ʃɹaʊdz/." The goal of synthetic phonics instruction is that students identify the sound-symbol correspondences and blend their phonemes automatically.

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Phonics in English

Phonics is a widely used method of teaching children to read, although it is not without controversy (see "History and controversy" below). Children begin learning to read using phonics usually around the age of 5 or 6. Teaching English reading using phonics requires children to learn the connections between letter patterns and the sounds they represent. Phonics instruction requires the teacher to provide students with a core body of information about phonics rules, or patterns.